My research examines the role that court structures play in shaping environmental outcomes. Specifically, I explore specialized environmental courts and tribunals (“ECTs”). ECTs are rapidly emerging in many developing countries on the premise that better environmental outcomes will result from judiciaries possessing procedures and personnel tailored to resolving complex environmental questions. In evaluating ECTs, my research will examine two related questions. First, I examine the causes and mechanisms for ECTs’ global proliferation. Second, I will undertake an initial exploration of ECT efficacy by developing a framework to compare environmental outcomes resulting from ECT orders to those issuing from generalist courts.